This guide outlines the techniques and application considerations for determining the location of a fault on ac transmission and distribution lines. This document reviews traditional approaches and the primary measurement techniques used in modern devices: one-terminal and two-terminal impedance-based methods and traveling wave methods. Application considerations include two- and three-terminal lines, series-compensated lines, parallel lines, untransposed lines, underground cables, fault resistance effects, and other power system conditions, including those unique to distribution systems.
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