This document includes a definition of the concept of modulation frequencies for light-emitting diodes (LEDs), a discussion on their applications to LED lighting, a description of LED lighting applications in which modulation frequencies pose possible health risks to users, a discussion of the dimming of LEDs by modulating the frequency of driving currents/voltage, and recommendations for modulation frequencies (flicker) for LED lighting and dimming applications to help protect against known potential adverse health effects.
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