Related Products – White Papers

Working groups interested in writing a white paper can find additional information in this White Paper Criteria List (PDF) and should use this downloadable template (DOCX) to draft their paper.

Industry Connections program working groups can develop a white paper using this downloadable template (DOCX).

Those members drafting a white paper for ICAP should use this downloadable template (DOCX).

All groups are encouraged to download and consult the IEEE SA Non-Standard Projects Style Manual (PDF).

Cover of Industry Connections Report: 3D Body Processing - Comparative Analysis of Anthropometric Methods: Past, Present, and Future.

IEEE SA 3D Body Processing Industry Connections–Comparative Analysis of Anthropometric Methods: Past, Present, and Future (PDF)

The 3DBP IC’s Quality subgroup focuses on developing preliminary methods, tools, benchmarks, resources, and testing procedures to define and quantify the quality of 3D models as well as the quality of the critical metadata, such as body landmarks and measurements. To further this goal, the 3DBP IC Group completed a comparative analysis of anthropometric methods focused on body measurements and captured 3D body shapes.

The aim of this study is twofold: first, to propose a methodology to assess the compatibility and repeatability of different body measurement extraction methods (e.g., body scanners, smartphone apps, and traditional anthropometry) using consistent criteria, and second, to conduct data collection and the corresponding analyses for the first instance of the application of the proposed methodology.

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Literature Review on Kinematic Properties of Road Users for Use on Safety-Related Models for Automated Driving Systems

Literature Review on Kinematic Properties of Road Users for Use on Safety-Related Models for Automated Driving Systems (PDF)

This document presents a review of relevant literature (e.g., standards, regulations, and scientific publications) that investigated kinematic behavior of road users. This review is intended to serve as a key contribution to the Automated Driving Systems (ADS) research and industry communities, as well as to current standardization efforts, such as IEEE Std 2846, IEEE Standard for Assumptions in Safety-Related Models for Automated Driving Systems.

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IEEE SA Industry Connections Report. Industry Connections Cybersecurity in Agile Cloud Computing. Cybersecurity Standards for Cloud Access

Cybersecurity Standards for Cloud Access (PDF)

The enterprise perimeter can now be everywhere—a dynamically created, policy-based secure access service edge. Enterprises want to protect their assets from unauthorized entities, but they also want to keep business continuity by allowing trusted devices and users to access applications hosted on premises or in the cloud. To achieve this, one of the most important security layers is the secure remote access. This paper presents the cloud security standards, with emphasis on secure remote access.

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Cybersecurity Technologies for Cloud Access Report Cover

Cybersecurity Technologies for Cloud Access (PDF)

This paper presents the cloud security technologies, with emphasis on secure remote access.

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Industry Connections Report: Extended Reality (XR) Ethics in Medicine Report Cover

The IEEE Global Initiative on Ethics of Extended Reality (XR) Report–Extended Reality (XR) Ethics in Medicine (PDF)

Extended Reality (XR) for medical use cases is proving to be beneficial to both patients and healthcare professionals as well as all other stakeholders throughout the healthcare industry. Healthcare is one of the largest industries to adopt XR technology. Some of the XR use-cases include helping surgeons better perform surgeries, immersing patients and healthcare professionals in medical information and education, and training all within XR environments. This report highlights the need for an ethical framework that is evolved from best practices throughout medical and technological fields to help ensure safe and equitable usage of the technology.

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IEEE 3D Body Processing Industry Connections: Landmarking for Product Development (PDF)

This paper seeks to explore where current landmarking definitions have difficulty bridging traditional and technological practice. The paper summarizes current definitions in a standard format to encourage discussion toward practice suited for both manual and virtual environments. The goal is toward definitions that enable a specific placement whether that references a point, curve, position.

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Introduction to the IEEE P2520™ Series of Standards on Olfaction Devices and Systems (PDF)

A new series of international odor monitoring and analysis standards are being developed by the IEEE Sensors Council and the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, in collaboration with the International Society for Olfaction and Chemical Sensing. The standards are designed for those developing and using odor analysis devices, electronic noses, and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) analyzers. It is structured as a series of standards that target different, common, odor emission applications, such as outdoor air pollution and chemical processes. The hope is that by targeting specific applications more traction can be gained than during previous attempts at standards. This white paper gives a brief introduction to the series and solicits participation by individual scientists and engineers who see the importance of this work, by companies producing monitoring equipment, and by entities that set regulations that govern this field.

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The IEEE Global Initiative on Ethics of Extended Reality (XR) Report– Social and Multi-User Spaces in VR: Trolling, Harassment, and Online Safety (PDF)

The scope of this report is the exploration of ethics-related issues in terms of virtual clones and the right to your identity; the aim is to initiate expert-driven, multidiscipline analysis of the evolving XR Ethics requirements, with a vision to propose solutions, technologies, and standards in future updates. The set of recommendations within this report will hopefully contribute to industry conceptualization of socio-technological issues, highlight concreted recommendations, and lay the groundwork for future technical-standardization activities.

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The IEEE Global Initiative on Ethics of Extended Reality (XR) Report– Extended Reality (XR) Ethics in Education (PDF)

The scope of this report is the exploration of ethics-related issues to support the development, design, and deployment of XR applications in Education and the aim is to initiate expert-driven, multidiscipline analysis of the evolving XR Ethics requirements, with a vision to propose solutions, technologies, and standards in future updates. The set of recommendations within this report will hopefully contribute to industry conceptualization of socio-technological issues, highlight concreted recommendations, and lay the groundwork for future technical-standardization activities.

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The IEEE Global Initiative on Ethics of Extended Reality (XR) Report–Who Owns Our Second Lives: Virtual Clones and the Right to your Identity (PDF)

This paper discusses different aspects and issues that arise when identity corresponds to and overlaps with the identity of actual humans.
The arguments mostly concern identities in virtual reality since that is where we, as researchers and developers, have the most experience and empirical data. However, most of the argument should be applicable to augmented reality applications as well.

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The IEEE Global Initiative on Ethics of Extended Reality (XR) Report–Extended Reality (XR) and the Erosion of Anonymity and Privacy (PDF)

An overview is given of some of the key privacy challenges introduced by the anticipated widespread adoption of XR technologies, algorithms, and services in this paper. This paper also discusses where existing rights and legislation fall short in safeguarding users of, and bystanders to, this technology. Recommendations regarding fundamental protections and mitigations that could either diminish or prevent XR-enabled digital harm are also proposed. More broadly, the text reflects on the tension between a desire to maintain human rights to privacy and anonymity, versus the potential consensual or induced erosion of these rights in the haste to take advantage of the benefits these technologies offer to everyday life.

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IIEEE SA 3D Body Processing Industry Connections–Summary and Recommended Actions for Communications, Security, Privacy, and Trust (CSPT) [IEEE P3141] (PDF)

3D scanning is a process that captures the three-dimensional attributes of an object and includes surface texture and spectral content. 3D scanners have become a critical tool for shortening product development and manufacturing time. The ongoing technological advancements in terms of portability, scanning range, and image quality have opened new application areas for 3D scanning. However, 3D scanning appears to be primarily dependent on users. Innovation in technology and application software, as well as growing and diverse connectivity, are leading 3D scanners to become a more integral element in the overall value chain. This notwithstanding, interoperability, data security and privacy, quality, portability, and trustworthiness are opportunities to be realized. The intent of this white paper is to highlight areas of opportunity for standard development organizations, specifically the IEEE P3141 Working Group, to focus on and further enable broad market use for the various sectors and users.

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IEEE 802 Nendica Report: Intelligent Lossless Data Center Networks (PDF)

The scope of this report is the exploration of networking technologies to support the requirements of modern data center networks that include support for high performance computing and artificial intelligence applications. Solutions to address challenges created by evolving requirements and new age technologies are proposed. Standardization considerations are identified.

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A Landscape for the Development of Dependable Machines (PDF)

This white paper, developed in the framework of the IEEE P2851 standardization project, describes a landscape of activities to be performed to address the dependability of intelligent machines during their development and usage in the field.

In this context, the landscape is intended as the definition of the entirety of the activities that are executed within the autonomous machine dependability lifecycle. Dependability here is intended as the property of an autonomous machine to perform reliably, safely, securely, in a time-deterministic manner, etc.

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IEEE SA 3D Body Processing Industry Connections – Comprehensive Review of Foot Measurements Terminology in Use (PDF)

Digital foot measurements are typically obtained from foot scanners or digital measuring software providers and they are consumed (or used) by footwear brands, orthotic workshops, size recommendation platforms, or even directly by footwear and orthotics users. IEEE SA Industry Connections (IC) 3D Body Processing (3DBP) Footwear Subgroup recommends that each digital foot measurement provider make measurement definitions publicly available for foot measurement data consumers. Foot scanning companies are providing measuring software that follow different definitions. This is particularly problematic in the case of key references, such as the foot axis. Many measurements are dependent upon the definition of the foot axis, giving rise to different values assigned to the same designation. This compilation will facilitate the comparison across definitions for measurement data consumers and help them make informed decisions.

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The IEEE SA 3D Body Processing Industry Connections Functional Anatomy, Terms, and Common Foot Conditions (PDF)

This paper provides a brief overview of some important functional anatomy terms and concepts from a medical perspective. The scope of this paper is not to serve as a comprehensive review of all the factors that are important in footwear design but to introduce functional anatomical and biomechanical terms and concepts along with a brief discussion of the most common foot conditions and their relevance to the health implications of footwear. This paper is considered a companion paper to IEEE SA 3D Body Processing Industry Connections Comprehensive Review of Foot Measurements Terminology in Use paper.

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IEEE IC Industry Consortium on Learning Engineering—Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Learning Engineering (PDF)

This paper presents the proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Learning Engineering.

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IEEE IC Big Data Governance and Metadata Management: Standards Roadmap (PDF)

The goal of Big Data Governance and Metadata Management (BDGMM) is to address Big Data characteristic challenges that would enable data integration/mashup among heterogeneous datasets from diversified domain repositories. This would allow data to be discoverable, accessible, and re-usable through a machine readable and actionable standard data infrastructure. This document identifies the challenges and opportunities with the ever-increasing deluge of information and forms the scope of boundaries; surveys examples of how such data exploration could impact emerging vertical application domains such as IoT, social media, smart cities, smart manufactures, and 5G wireless networks; provides a deeper understanding of the BDGMM challenges through a variety of case studies; presents a set of extracted requirements from the identified case study challenges and aggregated them into five general categories of requirements; lists the relevant standards activities that can potentially be used as enablers to support BDGMM; constructs a potential reference architecture by analyzing common feature components from various governance and metadata management architectures, then performing standard technology gap analysis by comparing what the architecture feature components need and what existing standards can offer; and lists recommendations of possible standards development needs in order to support BDGMM.

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IEEE 802 Nendica Report: Flexible Factory IoT: Use Cases and Communication Requirements for Wired and Wireless Bridged Networks (PDF)

This report includes use cases and communication requirements for wired and wireless bridged networks. Dense use of wireless devices with differentiated QoS requirements and operation in factory environments are taken into consideration. Gap analysis from existing IEEE 802 standards and necessary technology enhancement are also covered in the context of time-sensitive networks for the future.

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IEEE SA Industry Connections: The Measurement of Fabric Properties for Virtual Simulation — A Critical Review (PDF)

This paper investigates, on the one hand, the suitability of the current available measurement technologies for retrieving fabric parameters for precise virtual fabric and garment simulations. The focus is on the main properties required by the software packages—bending, shear, tensile and friction—aiming to identify and specify the most suitable methods to retrieve mechanical fabric properties and to start a standardization process for fabric measurements for virtual simulations.

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IEEE Industry Connections (IEEE-IC) Standards Roadmap: Neurotechnologies for Brain-Machine Interfacing (PDF)

This document aims at providing an overview of the existing and developing standards in the field of neurotechnologies for brain-machine interfacing. It is mainly focused on systems that provide a closed-loop interaction with artificial devices based on information extracted from measures of the activity in the nervous system. In addition to reviewing the most current standardization efforts, this document also reports on the current opinions on the topic as collected by an online survey conducted with members of the community and presents some recommendations on the perceived priorities for standardization.

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IEEE 3D Body Processing Industry Connections (3DBP IC): Communication, Security, and Privacy (PDF)

This white paper covers communication, security, and privacy (CSP), which are three distinct and fundamental attributes associated with the interoperability and interchange of detailed anthropometric data in 3D body processing. While separate matters, they are inter-related, and therefore must be thoroughly vetted for pragmatic purposes.

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Interoperability Maturity Roadmap–IEEE Std 2030.5 (PDF)

The IEEE 2030.5 ESC interoperability roadmap outlines activities to advance the interoperability dimensions related to responsive resource integration starting with the present state of IEEE Std 2030.5, supporting material, and related efforts. While the image of a plug and play standard is attractive, the roadmap acknowledges the complex responsive resource integration landscape and aims to describe practical steps that can lead to a simple, streamlined, and largely automated process.

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File Format Recommendations for 3D Body Model Processing (PDF)

This white paper is dedicated to file formats, covering the surveys conducted by 3DBP group, determining industry needs, and providing file format recommendations to facilitate the 3D data processing. The requirements for 3D body models are thoroughly considered, five file formats are compared, two of them that meet the requirements (X3D and glTF) are explored, and the recommendations on representation options are given as well.

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Utility Applications of Time Sensitive Networking (PDF)

In the context of this white paper, the utility is considered an entity (or entities) that manages the distribution of electricity on the transmission grid and the distribution grid. The power distribution network involves substations, and various protective and control devices that communicate over communications networks.

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IEEE PHD Cybersecurity Standards Roadmap (PDF)

The document contains the background related to PHD cybersecurity, a detailed risk analysis of use cases specific to PHD types (process part of PHD cybersecurity), a scalable information security toolbox appropriate for PHD communication (capability part of PHD cybersecurity), and harmonization of threat modeling, scoring, and principal security controls across device types and organizations. This Standards Roadmap will become the input for standardization of secure interoperability in open consensus standards (e.g., by IEEE 11073 PHD WG), industry standards (e.g., by Bluetooth MedWG) and guidelines (e.g., by PCHA GTC).

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Pre-Standards Workstream Report: Clinical IoT Data Validation and Interoperability with Blockchain (PDF)

The IEEE–Standards Association (IEEE–SA) pre–standards workstream for Clinical Internet of Things (IoT) data validation and interoperability with blockchain was initiated to determine if a viable standards framework could be established to enable the validation of data generated from a clinical–grade IoT device and shared through the interoperability of blockchain technology. This paper provides a summary of the workstream.

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Conformity Assessment IEEE 1547: Interconnection and Interoperability of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) and Associated Electric Power Systems (EPSs) Interfaces (PDF)

This document is a tool to assess conformance of a Distributed Energy Resource (DER) Interconnection during the commissioning phase of a DER Interconnection to the IEEE 1547 as may be specified in the governing Interconnection Agreement executed between the Area Electric Power System (EPS) Operator and DER Owner. Commissioning agents and DER owners that participate in The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Conformity Assessment Program (ICAP) 1547 Certification Program must comply with this conformity assessment document and requirements in this document. Conformance with this document is assessed as part of the ICAP certification program.

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IEEE Synchrophasor Measurement Test Suite Specification – Version 3 (PDF)

The scope of this TSS is limited to the testing of PMU electrical performance. As of this revision of the TSS, the standard for PMU performance is IEC/IEEE Joint Standard 60255-118-1-2018, IEEE/IEC International Standard-Measuring relays and protection equipment–Part 118-1: Synchrophasor for power systems-Measurements. This TSS will be revised as the standard for PMU performance is revised. Users are encouraged to check for the latest revision of this document. This is the third revision: Version 1 complies with IEEE Std C37.118-2011. Version 2 complies with IEEE Std C37.118.1a-2014. Version 3 complies with IEC/IEEE 60255-118-1-2018.

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The National Electrical Code® (NEC®)and the National Electrical Safety Code® (NESC®): Partners for a Safer Tomorrow, September 2016 (PDF)

In the history of the world, the harnessing of electricity ranks right up there with the discovery of fire. As a technology that touches nearly every aspect of our modern life, it’s hard to imagine how things would be without electricity.

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The Oregon Joint Use Association (OJUA) and the National Electrical Safety Code® (NESC®): A Progressive Model for Industry Cooperation, April 2016 (PDF)

Pity the lowly utility pole. Despite the fact that 97% of the electrical transmission miles in the U.S. use overhead facilities, poles are so common a slight that they readily fade from everyday view into the unseen background.

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The Changing Face of US Power Production, July 2019 (PDF)

The humble beginnings of commercial electrical power generation in the U.S. is generally marked by the 1882 launch of Thomas Edison’s Pearl Street Station in Manhattan. Although only capable of an initial output of around 35 kilowatts (kW), it signified the start of the technological and industry evolution that continues to the current day.

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Grid Resilience and the NESC, April 2018 (PDF)

Resilience is a word that has meaning in both our personal and professional lives. In everyday use, resilience is a positive attribute that generally refers to the ability to bounce back—whether it be an individual’s ability to rebound from unforeseen difficulties, or the ability of infrastructure to recover from disruptive forces or events.

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