Policies and Procedures

Comprehensive information about IEEE-SA governance, as well as links to relevant governing documents and boards and committees that support the standards development lifecyle.

IEEE-SA STANDARDS BOARD BYLAWS

6. Patents

6.1 Definitions
The following terms, when capitalized, have the following meanings:

"Accepted Letter of Assurance" and "Accepted LOA" shall mean a Letter of Assurance that the IEEE-SA has determined is complete in all material respects and has been posted to the IEEE-SA web site.

"Affiliate" shall mean an entity that directly or indirectly, through one or more intermediaries, controls the Submitter, is controlled by the Submitter, or is under common control with the Submitter. For the purposes of this definition, the term "control" and its derivatives, with respect to for-profit entities, means the legal, beneficial or equitable ownership, directly or indirectly, of more than fifty percent (50%) of the capital stock (or other ownership interest, if not a corporation) of an entity ordinarily having voting rights. "Control" and its derivatives, with respect to nonprofit entities, means the power to elect or appoint more than fifty percent (50%) of the Board of Directors of an entity.

"Blanket Letter of Assurance" shall mean a Letter of Assurance that applies to all Essential Patent Claims for which a Submitter may currently or in the future (except as otherwise provided for in these Bylaws and in the IEEE-SA Standards Board Operations Manual) have the ability to license.

"Enabling Technology" shall mean any technology that may be necessary to make or use any product or portion thereof that complies with the [Proposed] IEEE Standard but is neither explicitly required by nor expressly set forth in the [Proposed] IEEE Standard (e.g., semiconductor manufacturing technology, compiler technology, object-oriented technology, basic operating system technology, and the like).

"Essential Patent Claim" shall mean any Patent Claim the use of which was necessary to create a compliant implementation of either mandatory or optional portions of the normative clauses of the [Proposed] IEEE Standard when, at the time of the [Proposed] IEEE Standard's approval, there was no commercially and technically feasible non-infringing alternative. An Essential Patent Claim does not include any Patent Claim that was essential only for Enabling Technology or any claim other than that set forth above even if contained in the same patent as the Essential Patent Claim.

"Letter of Assurance" and "LOA" shall mean a document, including any attachments, stating the Submitter's position regarding ownership, enforcement, or licensing of Essential Patent Claims for a specifically referenced IEEE Standard, submitted in a form PDf format acceptable to the IEEE-SA.

"Patent Claim(s)" shall mean one or more claims in issued patent(s) or pending patent application(s).

"Reasonable and Good Faith Inquiry" includes, but is not limited to, a Submitter using reasonable efforts to identify and contact those individuals who are from, employed by, or otherwise represent the Submitter and who are known to the Submitter to be current or past participants in the development process of the [Proposed] IEEE Standard identified in a Letter of Assurance, including, but not limited to, participation in a Sponsor Ballot or Working Group. If the Submitter did not or does not have any participants, then a Reasonable and Good Faith Inquiry may include, but is not limited to, the Submitter using reasonable efforts to contact individuals who are from, employed by, or represent the Submitter and who the Submitter believes are most likely to have knowledge about the technology covered by the [Proposed] IEEE Standard.

"Statement of Encumbrance" shall mean a specific reference to an Accepted LOA or a general statement in the transfer or assignment agreement that the Patent Claim(s) being transferred or assigned are subject to any encumbrances that may exist as of the effective date of such agreement. An Accepted LOA is an encumbrance.

"Submitter" when used in reference to a Letter of Assurance shall mean an individual or an organization that provides a completed Letter of Assurance. A Submitter may or may not hold Essential Patent Claims.

6.2 Policy
IEEE standards may be drafted in terms that include the use of Essential Patent Claims. If the IEEE receives notice that a [Proposed] IEEE Standard may require the use of a potential Essential Patent Claim, the IEEE shall request licensing assurance, on the IEEE Standards Board approved Letter of Assurance form PDf format, from the patent holder or patent applicant. The IEEE shall request this assurance without coercion.

The Submitter of the Letter of Assurance may, after Reasonable and Good Faith Inquiry, indicate it is not aware of any Patent Claims that the Submitter may own, control, or have the ability to license that might be or become Essential Patent Claims. If the patent holder or patent applicant provides an assurance, it should do so as soon as reasonably feasible in the standards development process once the PAR is approved by the IEEE-SA Standards Board. This assurance should be provided prior to the Standards Board’s approval of the standard. An asserted potential Essential Patent Claim for which an assurance cannot be obtained (e.g., a Letter of Assurance is not provided or the Letter of Assurance indicates that assurance is not being provided) shall be referred to the Patent Committee.

A Letter of Assurance shall be either:

a) A general disclaimer to the effect that the Submitter without conditions will not enforce any present or future Essential Patent Claims against any person or entity making, using, selling, offering to sell, importing, distributing, or implementing a compliant implementation of the standard; or

b) A statement that a license for a compliant implementation of the standard will be made available to an unrestricted number of applicants on a worldwide basis without compensation or under reasonable rates, with reasonable terms and conditions that are demonstrably free of any unfair discrimination. At its sole option, the Submitter may provide with its assurance any of the following: (i) a not-to-exceed license fee or rate commitment, (ii) a sample license agreement, or (iii) one or more material licensing terms.

Copies of an Accepted LOA may be provided to the working group, but shall not be discussed, at any standards working group meeting.

The Submitter and all Affiliates (other than those Affiliates excluded in a Letter of Assurance) shall not assign or otherwise transfer any rights in any Essential Patent Claims that are the subject of such Letter of Assurance that they hold, control, or have the ability to license with the intent of circumventing or negating any of the representations and commitments made in such Letter of Assurance.

The Submitter of a Letter of Assurance shall agree (a) to provide notice of a Letter of Assurance either through a Statement of Encumbrance or by binding any assignee or transferee to the terms of such Letter of Assurance; and (b) to require its assignee or transferee to (i) agree to similarly provide such notice and (ii) to bind its assignees or transferees to agree to provide such notice as described in (a) and (b).

This assurance shall apply to the Submitter and its Affiliates except those Affiliates the Submitter specifically excludes on the relevant Letter of Assurance.

If, after providing a Letter of Assurance to the IEEE, the Submitter becomes aware of additional Patent Claim(s) not already covered by an existing Letter of Assurance that are owned, controlled, or licensable by the Submitter that may be or become Essential Patent Claim(s) for the same IEEE Standard but are not the subject of an existing Letter of Assurance, then such Submitter shall submit a Letter of Assurance stating its position regarding enforcement or licensing of such Patent Claims. For the purposes of this commitment, the Submitter is deemed to be aware if any of the following individuals who are from, employed by, or otherwise represent the Submitter have personal knowledge of additional potential Essential Patent Claims, owned or controlled by the Submitter, related to a [Proposed] IEEE Standard and not already the subject of a previously submitted Letter of Assurance: (a) past or present participants in the development of the [Proposed] IEEE Standard, or (b) the individual executing the previously submitted Letter of Assurance.

The assurance is irrevocable once submitted and accepted and shall apply, at a minimum, from the date of the standard's approval to the date of the standard's transfer to inactive status.

The IEEE is not responsible for identifying Essential Patent Claims for which a license may be required, for conducting inquiries into the legal validity or scope of those Patent Claims, or for determining whether any licensing terms or conditions provided in connection with submission of a Letter of Assurance, if any, or in any licensing agreements are reasonable or non-discriminatory.

Nothing in this policy shall be interpreted as giving rise to a duty to conduct a patent search. No license is implied by the submission of a Letter of Assurance.

In order for IEEE's patent policy to function efficiently, individuals participating in the standards development process: (a) shall inform the IEEE (or cause the IEEE to be informed) of the holder of any potential Essential Patent Claims of which they are personally aware and that are not already the subject of an existing Letter of Assurance, owned or controlled by the participant or the entity the participant is from, employed by, or otherwise represents; and (b) should inform the IEEE (or cause the IEEE to be informed) of any other holders of such potential Essential Patent Claims that are not already the subject of an existing Letter of Assurance.

7. Copyright
All contributions to IEEE standards development (whether for an individual or entity standard) shall meet the requirements outlined in this clause.

7.1 Definitions
The following terms, when capitalized, have the following meanings:

"Public Domain" shall mean material that is no longer under copyright protection or did not meet the requirements for copyright protection.

"Published" shall mean material for which a claim of copyright is apparent (e.g., the presence of the copyright symbol ©; an explicit statement of copyright ownership or intellectual property rights; stated permission to use text; a text reference that indicates the insertion of text excerpted from a copyrighted work; or a visual indication of an excerpt from another work, such as indented text).

"Work Product" shall mean the compilation of or collective work of all participants (e.g., a draft standard; the final approved standard).

7.2 Policy
The IEEE owns the copyright in all Work Products.

Participants are solely responsible for determining whether disclosure of any contributions that they submit to the IEEE requires the prior consent of other parties and, if so, to obtain it.

7.2.1 Contributions from previously Published sources
All contributions from previously Published sources that are not Public Domain shall be accompanied by a Copyright Permission Form that is completed by the copyright owner, or by a person with the authority or right to grant copyright permission. The Copyright Permission Form shall outline the specific material being used and the planned context for its usage in the IEEE standard.

7.2.2 Contributions not previously Published
For any contribution that has not been previously Published, and that is not Public Domain:

a) The IEEE has the non-exclusive, irrevocable, royalty-free, worldwide rights (i.e., a license) to use the contribution in connection with the standards project for which the contribution was made.

b) Upon approval of the standard, the IEEE has the right to exploit and grant permission to use the standard's content derived from the contribution in any format or media without restriction.

Copyright ownership of the original contribution is not transferred or assigned to the IEEE.

8. Modifications to the IEEE-SA Standards Board Bylaws
Proposed modifications to these bylaws may be submitted to the IEEE-SA Standards Board Procedures Committee (ProCom) for its consideration. Proposed modifications that have been agreed to by ProCom shall be submitted to the IEEE-SA Standards Board for recommendation to forward to the IEEE-SA BOG for approval (see clause 5.1 of the IEEE Standards Association Operations Manual).

Modifications to these bylaws and the reasons therefor shall be mailed to all members of the IEEE-SA Standards Board at least 30 days before the IEEE-SA Standards Board meeting where the vote on these modifications shall be taken. Two-thirds of the voting Board members present at the meeting shall be required to approve any modifications.

These bylaws shall be reviewed by legal counsel.

8.1 Interpretations of the IEEE-SA Standards Board Bylaws
Requests for interpretations of this document shall be directed to the Secretary of the IEEE-SA Standards Board. The Secretary of the Board shall respond to the request within 30 days of receipt. Such response shall indicate a specified time limit when such an interpretation will be forthcoming. The time limit shall be no longer than is reasonable to allow consideration of and recommendations on the issue by, for example, the Procedures Committee of the IEEE-SA Standards Board. The interpretation shall be delivered by the Chair of the Procedures Committee after ProCom discussion provided that at least 75% of the committee agrees. The IEEE-SA Standards Board shall be notified of these results. If less than 75% of the committee agrees, or if any single committee member requests, the issue shall be deferred to the next regularly scheduled IEEE-SA Standards Board meeting for the full Board to decide.