Distributed multi-computer master stations and distributed remote terminal units (RTUs) are introduced. Submaster RTUs used in an automated distribution system with downstream feeder RTUs is defined. Local area networks with master stations are discussed. Intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) with respect to their interface to RTUs and master stations are defined. New surge withstand capability (SWC) standards and their applicability to SCADA is shown. An example channel loading calculation is provided.