The intent of this guide is to provide guidance and information pertinent to safe grounding practices in AC substation design. The specific purposes of this guide are: a) To establish, as a basis for design, the safe limits of potential differences that can exist in a substation under fault conditions between points that can be contacted by the human body; b) To review substation grounding practices with special reference to safety, and develop criteria for a safe design; c) To provide a procedure for the design of practical grounding systems, based on these criteria; d) To develop analytical methods as an aid in the understanding a ns solution of typical gradient problems; e) To provide benchmark cases using various commercial software programs. This guide is primarily concerned with safe grounding practices for power frequencies in the range of 50-60 Hz. The problems peculiar to DC substations and the effects of lightning surges are beyond the scope of this guide.This guide is primarily concerned with outdoor AC substations, either conventional or gas-insulated. These include distribution, transmission, and generating plant substations. With proper caution, the methods described herein are also applicable to indoor portions of such substations, or to substations that are wholly indoors. No attempt is made to cover the grounding problems peculiar to DC substations. A quantitative analysis of the effects of lightning surges is also beyond the scope of this guide.
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